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update - July 2015
In addition to the lines of John Kinsman of Poundstock, another descendant of the Cornish Kinsman families has also had his DNA analysed. His haplogroup turned out to be R1b1 - very distinct from the C3 grouping of Andrew's branch. This line is quite clear back to William Kinsman who married Florence Woollocke in 1663 in Probus and had children baptised both in Probus and in nearby Cuby. Most researchers have linked this William back to William, the son of Richard Kinsman of Kilkhampton. Unfortunately, this is incorrect. What is definite is that William s/o Richard married a Catherine Hillman in Barnstaple, Devon in 1654. A search of the parish register shows several children to this marriage and also a burial for Catherine well after the marriage of William Kinsman to Florence Woolocke. There is no burial recorded for this William as he was a sailor in the Royal Navy and died at sea - no grave, but a will instead.
Recently, a very good match turned up on this line. Technically, the match is on 34 out of 37 markers, with a difference of 3 on the remaining three markers. This degree of match is far too good to be ignored. The drawback is that the donors (there are two of them) on this other line are not Kinsman and on the surface would appear to be unrelated - their paternal surname is PAFFORD.
Their line traces back to a John Pafford who lived in North Carolina, USA in the late 1700s. The paper trail stops there, with no clear indication of whether he was a recent immigrant or if his family had been in the USA for a few generations.
Again, there was initially nothing to connect the Pafford-Kinsman names in Cornwall, Pafford is not a name strongly associated with that part of the UK. There are remarkably few baptisms recorded for that name in Cornwall. Inspection of burial records showed that there was a family of Paffords living in Gwennap in the same time frame of William Kinsman in Probus, only a few miles down the road. They also turn up there on the Protestation Oath records of 1641.
There has subsequently been a second DNA donor on this Kinsman line, whose most recent common ancestor with the first donor is Simon Kinsman, born 1702, grandson of William & Florence. These two samples match 36/37 +1.
This second donor matches the Pafford donors 35/37 +2, i.e. one step closer than the first match. So, most likely, this one step mismatch between the two Kinman donors occured with the sons of Simon or a later generation.
The genetic distance on the DNA samples (2) would suggest a most recent common ancestor for these two lines not closer than 1700, which would beg the question of whether John Pafford of North Carolina is a descendant of William Kinsman, or perhaps they are both descendants of Adam Pafford of Gwennap. All of William Kinsman's male children and grandchildren are accounted for in Cornwall, so the latter theory is more likely. Whatever the truth, it would be very useful to find where the tie-in lies between this Pafford line and the Kinsman line.
As you can see from the outline tree there are a lot of question marks that further DNA tests would help to remove. There are a lot of Kinsmans who can be traced back to this line, particularly in the USA because of the numerous migrations of miners and masons from these Cornish families to America and Canada in the 1800s. Similarly there are several Paffords who could help to sort this out. We would welcome any descendant who wanted to add to this pool of knowledge and help prove the linkages back to the earliest records.